Why do we play?
Impressive number of studies on serotonin and oxytocin release during game and gamification engagement – there is research linked to Mine’s work.
Psychological studies have shown that gamers often experience altruistic encounters in video games, as more experienced players help “newbies”.
Being there without being there (simulation)
Creativity, creative thinking and problem solving – competition AND Socialising
What is Gamification?
Overlaying Game Mechanics onto real world scenarios or activities
Principles of Gamification
You can show this through design elements like a high score table, progress bar or a digital badge
There should be an element of competition for the user either against themselves to beat a personal best, a computer opponent or a real opponent
Your gamification design should have an element of fun, after all that is the essence of any game. There is a difficult balance in making a game accessible for anyone to use, but with enough challenge to keep the user motivated, while maintaining the fun (see Candy Crush app for a good example)
Does it exist? Is it just good learning design?
‘Crap LMS overlaid with crap gamification just won’t cut it any more!’ – @donaldclark
Who is playing games?
Average age of gamers in the UK – 57% players in the UK are male and 43% female. The largest single age/gender demographic is 15-24 year-old males (www.ukie.org.uk )
Mobile games have a lot to answer for – 47% of UK smartphone owners use apps on their phones to play games – more that use apps for online banking (40%) or reading the news (33%) (www.ukie.org.uk )
University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine what to avoid ‘default mode error’ and increase problem solving by offering 3 plausible solutions to consider
Financial service creating games to teach risk-assessment
There are a couple of examples of early years research from the Australia (Tootell and Freeman) and Canada (Nolan and McBride)
What are the elements of Gamification?
• Rewards / Level up – Jacqui’s was better, you are a level 2 origami master
• Feedback – OfSTED handbook ‘planning next steps’
• Chance to Fail – developing resilience
• Social – connected to other children and adults
You can see how these link to the neural level, as mentioned by Mine
4 mistakes – too many rewards, doesn’t fulfil learning objectives, focuses only on competition, game mechanics are faulty.
How do we apply Gamification to learning?
Scenario-based pedagogy / Experiential pedagogy / Role-play
Recording the 3D elements of play in early years – avoiding intervention
You must strike a balance between behaviourist/extrinsic gaming and cognitive/intrinsic gaming
Tools to use
– ClassDojo (www.classdojo.com )
– Kahoot (https://getkahoot.com )
– SMS-based games (Aberdeen University, Bradford College)
– Learning Management Systems or Virtual Learning Environments
• Time consuming to set up
• Maintaining motivation
• Fun vs Learning
Dichev, C. and Dicheva, D. (2017). Gamifying Education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education 14(9) 1-36
Dominguez, A. Saenz-de-Navarrette, J., De-Marcos, L., Fernandez-Sanz, L., Pages, C. and Martinez-Harraiz, J. (2013). Gamifying learning experiences: Practical implications and outcomes. Computers & Education 63 380-392
Hamari, J., Koivisto, J. and Sarsa, H. (2014). Does Gamification work? A literature review of the empirical studies on Gamification, in Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS
Kapp, K. (2012). The Gamification of Learning and Instruction: Game-based methods and strategies for training and education. San Fransisco: Pfeiffer
Turan, Z., Avinc, Z., Kara, K. and Goktas, Y. (2016). Gamification in Education: Achievements, Cognitive Loads and Views of Students. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning 11(7) 64-69
Richardnelsononline.co.uk on gamification in education – http://www.richardnelsononline.co.uk/blog/lessons/gamification-in-education
Gamification in maths – http://www.teachthought.com/uncategorized/a-case-study-in-gamification/
Gamification Neuroscience to reduce decision error -https://elearningindustry.com/gamification-research-results-gamification-neuroscience-reduce-decision-error-build-learning-community
Business simulation game – https://elearningindustry.com/press-releases/advantexe-launches-new-digital-board-game-business-simulation
Gamification mistakes – https://elearningindustry.com/game-over-4-gamification-mistakes
Make games using PHASER – http://phaser.io/download
ClassDojo – www.classdojo.com
Reading list – https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B_9PyHbXDGJhbWZHSk1OSFd2YnM